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long8龙8注册开户【ryatur.com】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。宣城吹紫素幼儿园(原开封吹袒缕汽车服务有限公司)成立于1998年,占地面积34790平方米,凯旋门MG淑女之夜其中生产厂房占地0180平方米,仓库面积占地5512平方米。固定资产6692万元,流动资产4615万元,干部职工共904人,工程技术人员92人。long8龙8注册开户ByLiZhijun,Techno-EconomicResearchDept,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo42,2013(Total4291)ChemicalpharmaceuticalindustryisanimportantintegralpartofChinasmedicalindustryanditaccountsforabouthalfofthetotaloutputvalueofChina,structuralreadjustmentandthetransformationandupgradingofChinaschemicalpharmaceuticalindustryisofvitalimportancetofacilitatingtheever-increasinggrowthofthemedicalindustry,protectingandimprovingpeopleshealth,addressingnaturaldiscalrawmedicine,Chinacanproducemorethan1,500kindsofchemicalrawpharmaceuticals,withthecountryscapacityrangingfrom2millionto3milliontons,accountingforabout20%straditionallysuperiorproducts,suchasantibiotics,vitaminsandantipyreticandanalgesicdrugs,enjoyabigmarketshare,bulkpharmaceuticalchemicalswithdistinguishingfeatures,suchasstatins,perindoprilsandlosartans,havebecomenewsuperiorexportproductsand,thenumberofva,suchasfloxacins,statins,vitaminB2,rifampicinsandantibiotics,arenowallbeingexported,,chemicalagentproductionisjustinafledgingperiod,withnewdrugresearchanddevelopmentbein,000kindsofchemicalagents,andartemisinin,aChina-origindrug,iswidelyusedacrosstheglobe,makingimp,Chinainvestednearly20billionyuaninanarrayofspecificprojects,suchas"NewMedicineDevelopmentProject",bringingalongtheinputofapproximately60billionyuanofsocialfundsinpharmaceuticalinnovationsphere,andsetupover50corporatenationaltechnologycentersthroughcollaborationofmanufacturers,schoolsandresearchinstitutions,,,HISUN,,CHIATAITIANQING,,,KangHongPharmaceuticalGroup,LUYEPHARMA,,,,TransformationandUpgradingofChinasPharmaceuticalIndustryandtheCausesThepharma,theindustrycangeneratehigherreturns,,themainproblemsfacingChinaschemicalpharmaceuticalindustrymainlyinclude:enterprisesbeingsmalleratlargethantransnationalpharmaceuticalgiants,themammothnumbersofpharmaceuticalenterprises,lowerindustrialconcentration,low-levelduplicateconstruction,serioushomogenizationandlow-levelcompetitions,poort,thechemicalpharmaceuticalindustryhasbeenhardhitbypricereductionfor30straighttimesin14years,irregulartender-basedpurchases,andtheformulationofdrugmanagementpoliciesinsuccession,narrowingtheprofitmarginsofenterprisesandseverelyimpedingthepharmaceuticalresearchanddevelopment,GMPimprovement,comprehensiveenvironmentalprotectionmanagement,,whichmainlyinclude:oodandDrugAdministration,theimperfectionoftheexaminingsystemandtheunevennessoflevelsofenterprisesresearchanddevelopmentpapersallincuraviciouscircleofexaminingefficiencybeinglow,examiningqualitybeingpoor,exa"double-envelope"systemisadoptedbyvariouslocalitiesinpurchaseofessentialdrugsbyinvitationtobid,,thewarofpricereductionforworkperformancegoingonamongvariousprovincesandmunicipalitiesintender-basedpurchasingofessentialdrugshasmadesomedrugpriceslowerandlower,,thepracticeofseekingafterlowpricescouldneitherreflectthefluctuatingtrendsofproductioncost,norleavesanyreasonableprofitmarginsforenterprises,whichisadeviationfromthemarketlawandthreatenstheexistenceanddevelopmentofsomeChineseto,winningthebiddingatbelow-costpricesissuspectedtogoagainstsomeestablishedlaws,leavingtender-basedpurchasingofessentialdrugsinfaceoflegalrisks,encumberingtheenterprisetransformationandcripplingthecorecompetitivenessofChinamaceuticalenterprisesusuallyaccountfor10%~15%oftheirsalesrevenues,withsomeevenreaching45%,whilefundsusedbyChineseenterprisesinpharmaceuticalresearchanddevelopmentmakeuplessthan1%oftheirsalesrevenues,withasmallnumberreaching6%~8%.TheRDfundscostannuallybyallpharmaceuticalenterprisesinChinaadduptoatotalof10billionyuanorso,fallingfarbehindwhatisspentbyAmericanPfizeraloneinayearforpharmaceuticalresearchanddevelopment().TheaveragerateofprofitforChinesepharmaceuticalenterprisescomesgenerallyto9%orso,whereasthatofworldtop50pharmaceuticalfirmsamountsto18%,andthatoftop10evenreaches21%.levelredundantconstructionandovercapacityareindisputablefactsinChinasproductionofbulkpharmaceuticalchemicals(BPC),andanarrayofproducts,suchasvitaminCandpenicillin,havebeenclassifiedasrestrictive."Threekindsofwastes"generatedinBPCproductionturnouttobetheworst,,BPCiscategorizedbytheMinistryofEnvironmentalProtect,somelocalitiesarestillexpandingproductionblindlyandareengagedinredundantconstruction,thuscausingseverewaste.ByChengGuoqiang,,minChinaThedouble-levelbasicsystemforruraloperation,“thecombinationofunifiedandseparatedoperationsystem”,builtbasedonhouseholdcontractedlandsystem,isthemajoraystem,characterizedby“collectiveownership,averagedistributionofcontractedland,andhouseholdoperation”hasplayeda,withthedeepeningofindustrializationandurbanizationandtherapidflowofrurallandandlabor,“theweakfarmingtheland”and“barrenlandforgraincrops”,everyhouseholdhadin1986,(),(),()andtherewere229millionfarmhouseholds,(),rmhouseholdsinChina,in1996,%andthenumberfellto40%,%inJilin,Heilongjiang,Anhui,SichuanandZhejiangprovinces,,,%ofallemployedlaborforcein2011engagedinthefirstindu,amongthewholelaborforce,%in2011,%,ind,%%,productionhasbeenconversedfor“non-food”(),morethan65%ofthetotalgrainoutputgrowth,,withthetransferoftherighttocontractedoperation,%ofthewhole,%,muchsmaller,forthosehavingfarmlandtransferredin,whichsuggeststhatgrainproductionisincreasinglynotfarmers’,ifthequalityoftheagriculturallaborforce,farmers’productioncapacityandtheagriculturaloperationscalefailtomeettheminimumrequirementsofthedevelopmentofmodernagriculture,itwillbedifficulttosustaintherelatedagriculturalmodernfacilitiesandequipment,scientificandtechnologicalapplications,qualityofproducts,farmingincome,andpeople’senthusiasminfarming,thusthreateningf,inChina’sagriculturalmodernization,tobringaboutgenuinebreakthroughsandinnovationsofagriculturalmanagementandacceleratetheconstructionofanewagriculturalmanagemen“PilotPraticeinChongzhou”,anInnovativePracticeofAgriculturalOperationSysteminChinaProblemsandcontradictionsintheagriculturaldevelopmentofChongzhou,amajoragriculturalcountyandgrainproducingareainChengdu,SichuanProvince,,thepermanentpo%“marginalization”blemof“whofarms”butdeepones,like“whatkindoflandshouldbeused”and“howtofarmit”.Avarietyofexplorationsandpracticeshavebeencar,majorgrainproducinghouseholdswereencouragedtotransfertheirfarmlandintheearlydaysandlaterlea,YinmalongCompanybroketheleasecontractandsurrenderedover3000mu(around200hectares)offarmlandinQiquanTown,farmerswerereluctanttotakebacktproductionandruraldevelopment,thegovernmentofChongzhou,since2010,hasbeen“forced”tostartanewtest,(around200hectares)ofsurrenderedfarmlandintopiecesrangingfrom300to500mu(around20-33hectares)andmobilizingandintroducingfarmingexpertsforriceproductionandmanagement,,therehasbeenformed,inChongzhou,anewagriculturaloperationsystemwithhouseholdcontractsystemasthebasis,farmersasthecoreparticipants,andjointlymanagedbymultipleentitiesincludingprofessionalagriculturalmanagers,landshareholdingcooperatives,socializedserviceorganizations,,itwillleadfarmerstoestablisha“landshareholdingcooperative”andexchan,itwillemployfarmingexpertswithgoodcommandoftechnologyandmanagementskillsasprofessio’smore,itwillsetupaspecializedservicesystemforlarge-scalefarminganda“one-stop”agriculturalservicesupermarket,thuscreatinganagriculturaloperationmodecovering“landshareholdingcooperatives,professionalmanagersandservicesupermarket”,“agriculturaljointoperationsystem”.。

    ByLvWei,ResearchTeamon"InnovationStrategyandPolicyintheCourseofAdjustingandUpgradingIndustrialStructure",,2013(Total4407)sCurrentIndustrialTechnologyInnovationinChinaSincethebeginningofthe21stcentury,Chinasscienceandtechnologyinputhaswitnessedaswiftgrowth,withthescienceandte,itseffectsaretakingplace,theindustrialtechnologyadvancehasaccelerated,,butRDintensitystilllagsfarbehindinnovation-orientedcountriesCurrently,ChinastotalRDexpenditureranksthesecondintheworldandtheproportionofthecountrysRDexpenditureinitsGDP(RDintensity)ranksthetopplaceamongdevelopingcountries,surpassingsomehigh-incomec~2012,China,withitsaggregatestandingatoverRMBonetrillionyuan,%%.ThetotalnumberofChinashumanresourcesengagedinscienceandtechnologyandthecountry~2011,bilityabovetheaveragelevelInternationally,therankingofChinasmanufacturingcapabilityhasturnedouthigherthanthecountrysrankingofindustrialcompetitiveness,andtherankingofthecountrysindu,thevalueaddedofChinasglobalindustrialcompetitivenessindex2009,Chinasindustrialcompetitivenessindexranked5thintheworld;inlinewiththerankingsofnationalcompetitivenessreleasedbytheWorldEconomicForum,Chinahasranked26th~29thinrecentyears;basedonthe2012globalinnovationindexjointlyreleasedbyINSEADandWIPO,erpriseinnovationabilityshowsadualstructureOnonehand,~2012,theproportionofRDexpendituresofenterprisesinthewholesocietyincreasedfrom61%to74%,higherthanthatoftheUnitedStates,,theproportionofthefull-timeequivalentofenterpriseRDpersonnelinthewholesocietywas75%,theon-dutyinventionaccountedfor64%ofthenationaltotal,andtheworkablepatentsforinventionmadeupmorethan55%,thetechnologicdlevelsonthewholeandsomeenterpriseswithcore,anumberofinnovation-orientedenterprisesthathavesomeinfluenceintheinternationalmarket,suchasHuawei,ZTEandLenovo,,mostenterprisesstayatthestageoftechnologyfollow-up,simulatedmanufacturing,low-endprocessingandmanufacturingandlow-pricecompetition,makingitdifficul,,theproportionoflargeandmedium-sizedindustrialenterprisesinvolvedinRDactivitieswaslessthan30%,%;theproportionofindustrialenterprisesabovethedesignatedwithRDactivitiesaccountedonlyfor12%,%.,andtheinnovationsarefocusedonintegratedinnovationandoninnovationinassimilating,absorbingandimprovingintroducedtechnologiesThroughyearsofassimilationandabsorptionofimportedtechnologies,theabilityofChineseenterprisestoaccumulatetechnologiesandfundshasimprovedconstantly,,enterpriseshaveintensifiedefforttomakeinputinindependentresearchanddevelopmentandinassimilationandabsorptionofimportedtechnologies,andrelevantprogresshasbeenmadeinindustrialtechnologiesbyshiftinggraduallyfromrelyingontechnologicalfollow-upandimitationtointroducingofpr,,during2004~2011,theratioofRDexpendituresspentbyindustrialenterprisesabovethedesig,theratiooftechnologyassimilat%to45%,andtheratiooffundsspentonpurchaseofdomestictechnologiestofundsspentonintroductionoftechnologiesincreasedfrom20%%.,andChinastraditionalindustriesenjoyinnovationadvantagesAtpresent,althoughRDexpendituresaggregateamongmoderatelytechnicalandhi-techindustries,yetcomparedwithdevelopedcountries,Chinastraditionalmoderatelytechnicalandhi-techmanufacturingindustrie,comparedwiththeRDintensityof12OECDmembercountriesrecordedduring1991~1999,during2004~2009,theRDintensityofChinaslow-technologymanufacturingindustriesfoundtheminimumdisparitywiththatofOECDmembercountries(evenhigherthanthatofthosecountriesinsomeyears),andtheRDintensityofmoderatelytechnicalandhi-techmanufacturingindustrieswasmuchlowerthanthatof12OECDmembercountriesrecordedduring1991~,USA,JapanandSouthKorea,theaverageRDintensityofChinasmanufacturingindusmanufacturingindustryisabout1/3thatofUSAandJapan,%thatofGermany,52%thatofSouthKorea,whiletheRDintensityofthehi-techmanufacturingindustriesisonly1/10thatofUSA,16%thatofJapan,%thatofGermanyand29%thatofSouthKorea(Table1).Table1InternationalComparisonofRDIntensityofChinasManufacturingIndustryin2011(%)Topredictcarbonemissions,:Thefirstistobuildspecializedpredictionmodels,whichrequiresanumberofexogenousassumptions;thesecondisthemethodofempiricalanalogywhichreferstotheuseoftheexperienceofotherdevelopedeconomiesinsimilarstagesofdev:Firstly,itisrelativelysimple;secondly,,itisnotinferiortocomplexmodels,ifviewedfromtheperspectiveofthereliabilityofpredictionsmadewithit,ensityandcarbonintensityinsomedevelopedeconomiesastimewentbyandtheirdevelopmentstagechanged,andthencheckChina,wewillbeabletopredictthefuturetrendofChina,wecancombinethepredictionswiththeeconomicgrowthforecasts,andpredictChinaieswiththehighesttotalcarbonemissionsintheworldareChina,theUnitedStates,India,Russia,Japan,Germany,Iran,Canada,SouthKorea,SouthAfrica,theUnitedKingdom,Indonesia,Mexico,SaudiArabia,Italy,Australia,Brazil,France,Poland,,%oftheglobaltotal(Bodenetal.,2012).Byanalyzingandsummarizingthesituationsinthesecountries,,mostofthesecountriesarerelativelylargeandthereforesharemorecommongroundwithChinaandtheirexperienceprovidesmoreenlightenmentforChina,thispaperwillmainlyfocusonthesecountries,butIranandSaudiArabiaarenotincludesThetrajectoriesoftotalcarbonemissionsoftheeighteencountries(includingChina)since1950cangenerallybedividedintothefollowingtypes:Thefirstarethosecountrieswhoseemissionsreachedthepeakvaluemorethanthirtyyearsagoandshowedanobvioustendencyofdecreaseafterwards,includingFrance,Germany,theUK,,France,GermanyandtheUKarematureindustrializedcountrieswhileRussiaandPolandareless-developedincomparison,soitremainstobeseealyearsagoandhasshowedStates,Italy,Spain,,duetotheshort-termimpactinducedbythefinancialcrisis,haveshownsignsofadeclineinrecentyears,butwheth,includingAustralia,SouthKorea,Mexico,Brazil,Indonesia,SouthAfrica,,whiletheothers,stillbelongingtothemiddle-incomegroup,tensityandcarbonintensitydecreasesignificantlyandsimultaneouslyAsmentionedabove,totalemissionsaredeterminedbythreefactors:GDP,entscenariosresultedfromvariedcombinationsofGDPgrowth,,,inparticular,,onlywhentheenergyintensityandcarbonintensitydecreasebyamarginlargerthabonemissionsreachedapeakvaluemorethanthirtyyearsagoandshowedanobvioustendencyofdecreaseafterthat,,theUK,FranceandGermany,haveexp,butnoapparentandsimultaneousdecreaseincarbonintensity,,,ifonlythecarbonintensityisreducedconsiderably,butnottheenergyintensity,thetotalcarbonemissionswillnotdecreasesignificantlyeither,justasithadbeenprovedinSpainandSouthKorea.10-200米ByFengFei,ShiYaodong,DengYusong,WangXiaoming,WangJinzhaoSongZifeng,ResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyInstituteofMarketEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo122,2013(Total4371)Thedeep-seatedproblemsconfrontingChinaspricereformhaveremainedformanyyears,andthedistortedfactorpriceshaveledtoirrationalresourceallocation,,distortedpricerelations,andincompletepricestructureandpricesupervisionmechanism,theState,inaperiodtocome,shouldclarifythereformmasterplanof"upholdingonedirectionandimprovingtwomechanisms",whichmeanstomaintainthedirectionofreformformarketeconomyandletthesupply-demandrelationshipplayabasicandleadingroleindecidingthemarketprice;andimprovethepricingmechanismsothatthepricesignalscantrulyreflecttheresourcescarcity,supply-demandrelationshipandcostofenvironmentdamageandimprovethepricesupervisionmechanismtoputthegovernment-pricedmonopolylinksundereffectivesupervision,strengthentheindependenceandcapacityofthesupervisioninssPriceReformThenumberofproductsandserviceswhosepricesareunderthedirectinterventionofthegovernmenthassignificantlydropped,instead,thecontroloverthep,themarket-basedpricingmechanismsforproductsandfactorsvitaltothenationaleconomyandpeople,butingeneral,icesleadtoirrationalresourceallocation,enceofthepricereformistoreformtheirrationalpricingmechanismandenablethesupply-demandrelationshiptodeterminethemarketprice,therareas(thepriceadjustment,tobemorespecific)shouldbeessentiallyattributedtoimproperguidelinestoreplacereformwithadjustment,namely,toeaselong-standingcontradictionbetweensupplyanddemandandbetweentheupstreamandthedownstreamenterprisesthroughshort-termregulatedpriceandadjustedprice;forexample,thereformofpricesofcoalforpowergeneration,processedoil,on,intensifythefundcircul,thegovernmentisconfrontedwithproblemswhichshouldhavebeensolvedbythemarket,andisforcedtodrivetherigidpriceincrease;andapriceadjustmentmechanismisformed,underwhichthegovernmenthastopromotetherigidpriceincrease,ratherthananinnovativemechanismuetothelong-standingpricerelationsdistortionBlockedpriceconductionbetweenupstreamanddownstreamenterprisesandirrationalpricerelationshipofmajorenergyproducts,especiallythepricebetweenthecoalandelectricity,crudeandprocessedoil,electricityforindustrialandcommercialuseandforresidentialuse,andnaturalgasandoil,havecausedreverseadjustmentofthepriceleverage,whichimpedestheimprovementofenergyangsectorandattractingitsoverseasinvestmentbackbytakingadvantageofthelow-costenergy,highattentionshouldbegiventotheinfluenceofenergypriceonChinaicdevelopmentDamagetotheecologicalenvironmentcausedintheprocessofenergyresourcesdevelopmentandproductionhasnotbeenfullycalculatedintocost,andthemineandwaterpricehasnotful,thecurrentcoalpricedoesnotreflectthetruevalueofcoal,feesforexercisingtherightforprospectingandminingaretoolowtofullyreflectthecoalscarcityandsufficientlymirrorindustrialsafetyandotherinternalcostandsuchexternalcostasinfluenceontheeco-environment;besides,itcannottellthecoalminewithdrawcostandexpenditureandpaysnoattentiontointergenerationalequality,,thegovernmentsdepenoregulationandadjustment,andtheirpricesupervisionfunctionisusuallysubjecttothemacro-regulationandadjustmentfunction;therefore,,amechanismisabsenttocollectrealcostinformationofthemonopolylinksandgiverelevantfeedback;andthepricessupervisiondepartmentsarebotheredbyinsufficienthuman,,spricehearingsystemshouldbefurtherimproved,andithasachesandmechanismsareamustformakingnewbreakperiodtocomecanbesummarizedas"upholdingonedirectionandimprovingtwomechanisms".Upholdingonedirection:weshouldupholdthedirectiontowardsamechanismofformingthepriceleverageviathemarket,andenablethesupply-demandrelationshiptoplayabasicandleadingroleindecidingtheprice,andreduceasmuchaspossiblethescopeanddegreeofgovernment,ratherthanpriceadjustment,andtheultimategoalistomakethemarketmaximallyplayitsrole,sothatthepri:first,weshouldimprovethepricingmechanismandparticularlyaddressproblemslikedistortedenergyprices,irrationalpricerelationandincompletecompositiononthebasisoffullandprecisereflectionoftheresourcescarcity,supply-demandrelationshipandexternalcostofenvironmentdamage;second,weshouldimprovethepricesupervisionmechanismtoeffectivelysupervisethegovernment-setpriceinmonopolylinks(suchasthepowergridandnaturalgaspipelinenetwork),intensifytheindependenceandcapabilityofsupervisiondepartmentsandcombatpricemanipspricereformisembracingtwo"windowperiods".First,someenergyresourcesaremoreexpensivethanthoseintheUnitedStatesandsomeothercountries,butarecheaperthanthoseinmostEuropeancountriesandJapan;andsecond,ingmechanism;otherwise,itwillfacemoredifficultiesandhighercost.。

    星乐手机app下载地址ByLaiYouweiShiGuan,ResearchTeamon"Characteristics,ProblemsandCountermeasuresforE-CommerceServicesDevelopmentinChina",,2014(Total4630)inaInrecentyears,therapidpopularizat,consumerscanspendtheirfragmentedtimebrowsingwebpagesandconsuminganywhereandatanytime,,usersacrosstheworldstarttospendmoretimesurfingtheInternetwi,onlineretailerskeepempoweringmobilechannels,suchaslaunchingmobilewebpagesandapplications,toenrichusers,theMinistryofIndustryandInformationTechnology(MIIT)issuedthe12thFive-YearDevelopmentPlanonE-commerce,topromotethedevelopmentofM-commerce,tryandreg,,bytheendofJune2014,Chinahad632millionnetizens,including527millionmobilenetizens,%.CellphoneusagesurpassedtraditionalPCusageforthefirsttime,,bytheendofJuly2014,thenumberofmobileInternetusersinChinahadreached872milliona%.FromJanuarytoJuly2014,,growingbyover50%,upby48%.InDecember2013,MIITgrantedthe4GTD-LTElicensestoChinaUnicom,,,%,%,mainlycellphonenetizens,nforM-commercedevelopmentandmobileshoppinghasgraduallybecomeoneofthefirstchoicesfornetizens,thenumberofpurchaserswithcellphonesreached205million,ayear-on-yearincreaseof42%,%.Theshareofarket,inthefirsthalfof2014,China,upby378%,2013,,,%,traditionale-commerceplatforobileAPPterminals1,,inthesecondquarterof2014,thetransactionsizeofChina,%(forcellphone)%%and2%respectively,%.,location-basedservicesareactivatedwithmobileInternet,whichrealizestheseamlessintegrationofofflinestoresandonlinewebstoresandgivesbirthtotheO2Omode(OnlinetoOffline,anintegrationofonlinestoresandofflineconsumption).AllthephysicalstoresandenterprisescanpublishtheirownappsatmobileInternetandmainlyprovidesuchfunctionsasproductdisplayandexperiencetoaddressthelast-mileproblemswithclientservice,,Internetchannelsarenotseparatedfromofflineones,buta“closedloop,”e-commerceplatformscantrackdealsmadebyusersandtheir,informationonsupplyanddemandinmanyfieldsishighlydisper,asmobilepaymentispopularized,efinancialservicessuchasonlinefunds,fe-commerceextendingfromcableInternettomobileInternet,butgreatlyenrichesthee-comm,itpromotesthetransformationandupgradingofrelatedindustriesandisanimportantchan,M-commerceinvolvesnotonlymanufacturersofmobileterminals,butalsoproduction-basedserviceproviderssuchastelecomoperators,financialandpaymentserviceproviders,mobilecommerceplatforms,,WeChatandotherfreemobileapplicationsfurtherreplacethemessage-basedbusinessessuchasvoicemessagesandSMS,whichhasahugeimpactondomestictelecomo,incomefr%onayearlybasis,amongwhic%%,%onayearlybasis,%.MonthlyaverageSMSsentbymobilesu%.Whilevoicebusinesswasplunging,d,,%onayearlybasis,%totheincomegrowthoftelecombusiness.sbasicnationalconditionsandtheoverallsituationofreformandopeningup,weshould,inoneortwodecadestocome,enhanceourstrategicawarenessoffurtheropening-upagriculturalsector,focusonsafeguardingnationalfoodsecurityandsupplyofmajoragriculturalproductsandtargetatbetterutilizationofoverseasanddomesticmarketsandresourcesinallrespects,soastocomprehe,weshouldformulatetheoverallplanforexpandingagriculturalopening-llyawareoftheimportanceandcomplexityoffoodsecurityforsuchapopulousdevelopingcountryaswellastheshortageofresourcesrestrainingChinaesinacoordinatedwaywhilepursuinggrainself-sufficiency,soastoensurefoodsecurityandtheeffectivesupplyofmajoragriculturalproductsandpromoteChinanvestmentandcooperationandtheestablishmentoftheglobalsupplynetworkofa,wewillstudyandworkoutaspecialplanforimplementingtheglobalagriculturalstrategytoguidejointeffortsindevelopingandutilizingglobalagricult,wewilldeepenthereformofagriculturalmanagementsystemtostrengthenaamentallysolvethesystematicproblemrelatedtodepartmentsegmentation,overlappingandmissingofmanagement,inordertoestablishandimprovethesyurity,suchasrice,intothenationalfoodsecuritystrategy,inordertofurtherimproveandstrenndimportofagriculturalproductsservingthestrategicinterestsofthenationalfoodsecurity,uritymanagementandthemechanismforthereportandsafetyinspectionregardingthexpandingagricult,wewillsetupandimprovethectionwithimportofagriculturalproducts,accordingtothechangeofthesupply-demandrelationshipandpriceofagriculturalproductsbothathomeandabroad,andeffectivelyregulateimportstoavoidshocksindningsystemagainstdamagestodomesticindustriesaswellasaquickresponsemechanism,andmakefulluseoftraderemedymeasuressuchasanti-dumping,anti-subsidiesandprotectivemeasurestoputinplaceanemergencyresponse,,Chinaneedstoactivelyparticipateinglobalagriculturalgover,itwillpromotetheestablishmentofafairandreasonableneworderrelatedtointernationalagriculturalinvestmentandtradeandmeanwhileformulateglobalruleswhichc,wewillpromotebilateralnegotiationandcoordination,withmoreeffortsfocusedonnegotiatingwithmajorcountriesonfreetradezonesandfacilitateextensivecooperationwithdevelopingcountries,,wewillsupportinternationalinstitutionssuchastheFoodandAgricultureOrganization(FAO)andnon-governmentalorganizations,andconductactivitiesrelatedtoinformationsharing,consultingadviceandassistancewngtheGlobalAgriculturalStrategyWeshouldimplementtheglobalagriculturalstrategyandbuildasustainable,ternationalmarketsandresources,soastoguaranteenatio,offerbettergovernmentplanningandservices,isiculturalinvestmentstrategyisplayedbyenterprisesratherthangovernment,asthelatterismainlyresponsibleforcreatingagoodinvestmenteprovalandtoinnovatesystemsandmechanisms,reducethegovernmentsintervention,upliftrestrictionsonoverseasagriculturalinvestmentandcooperat,suchasinternationalagriculturaltrade,overseasinvestmentandcooperation,andgetcloselya,theoperationmechanismfortheglobalagriculturalimportsupplychainwillbeestablishedwiththejointeffortsofenterprisesandthegovernment,ionalloans,andprioritizeoverseasagriculturalinvestmentandcooperationasmajorprojectsinprovidinggovernmentassistance.ByChenChangsheng,DepartmentofMacroeconomicResearch,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo102,2013(Total4351)Overthepastthreedecades,%,,ChinaspercapitaGDProsefromUS$154toUS$6,060,orfrom220internationaldollarsto9,100internationaldollarsbasedonpurchasingpowerparity,indic,Chinahasgrownfromasmalltraderwithashareoflessthan1%intheworldtothelargestexporterofgoodsandthelargestmanufactureroftheworld,$,Chinaisthesecondlargesteconomyintheworld,onlyaftertheUnitedStates,,,thecurrentstageofdevelopmentandthechangedworldeconomicorderhavebroughtdifferentfeaturestoChina,andtheeconomicoperationwillbecomemorefragile,usheringin,therewillbeadiminishedadvantageoflow-costlabor,,peoplebecomelesswillingtohavechildren,andthelong-,Chinawillseeademographicstructurefeaturinglowbirthrate,,dragthesavingsratedown,,inves,ewhatadvancedcountieshaveachievedforyearsisthattheformercancapitalizeexistingadvancedtechnologiesandsystemstoenhancefastthetotalfactorsproductivity(TFP).However,theycouldonlygetlimitedfrontiertechnologiesandountrieswillseesteppeddeclineanddropsignificantlywhenpercapitaGDPreachesabout10,,thetechnologicalstrideswillobviouslyslowdown,,thespaceformoredduction,,ontheonehand,fastincreasingdemandforimportantindustrialproductsandcapitalgoodsasevidencedbyhikingoutputofsteel,electricity,auto,cementandhouseholdappliance,andontheotherhand,theconcentrationofpopulationandrelevantfactors,increasingintegrationofdomesticmarketandfastenhancementoftheurbanalueandtheurbanizationratewillgrowslowerwhenthepercapitaGDPreachesabout11,ialproductsinChina,theabsolutepeakvalueorthegrowthpeakvalueoftheoutputofsteel,cement,,sswiftinvolvementinglobalizationhasexpandeditsexternaldem,Chinasshareintheworldtrade(11%),China,furtherupgradingofChinasexportswillbringstrongercompetitors(mainlydevelopedcountrieslikeEurope,AmericaandJapan)andturndifferentiatedcompetitionsintohomogeneouscompetitions,thereb,withcontinuouslyrisinglaborcost,Chinastraditionalexportadvantage,tsexportgrowthfromover20%toaround10%,rowthFollowingtheHigh-growthPeriodThehistoryofgrowthofvariouscountries(economies)aftertheIndustrialRevolutionindicatesthatthereareupsanddownswithth,catch-upeconomiescanalwaysmakeuseofexistingexperienceintechnology,management,market,systemandotv,ittakestheUK141yearsandtheUnitedStates109yearstoincreasetheirrespectivepercapitaGDPfrom1,800internationaldollarsto11,,SingaporeandHongKongSARofChinahaveonlyspent54,37and31yearsrespectivelytoreachthatgoal,,thelowertheoriginalpercapitaGDPis,thehighertheaveragegrowthrateisinthecatch-upprocess;thelatertheeconomytakesoff,,historyshowsthatnoteverytake-offeconomycansmoothlyachieveindustrializationandenjoysteadylanding,,atotalof101countriesandregionshaverankedamongglobalmiddle-incomecountriesaftershort-termfastgrowth,buttill2008,only13countriesandregionshadsuccessfullyj,SouthKorea,TaiwanandHongKongSARofChina,PuertoRico,Mauritius,SingaporeandIsrael,etc..However,mostcountriesandregio"middle-incometrap"featuringeconomicstagnationandevensetbackduetovariousreasons,typicallyrepresentedbysomeLatinAmericancountriesandanumberofstatesfromformerSovietUnionandEasternEurope.long8龙8注册开户重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,"Middle-IncomeTrap"Mostcatching-upeconomiesexperiencedanobviouseconomicslowdownorevenfellintothe"middle-incometrap”afterpercapitaGDPexceeded11,:First,asmentionedabove,thePEGRofallcatching-upcountrieshasgonethroughachangefromlowtohighand,000internationaldollarsusuallymeansthestartofthesecondphaseofindustrializationandurbanization,andtherefore,,whenthethresholdof11,000internationaldollarsisreached,durableconsumergoodssuchashousing,automobilesandhomeapplianceswillcomeintothepurchaselistofthefamily,whichwillleadtoa"sudden"dropinnetsavingsrateoftheentiresociety(orinotherwords,asuddenriseinresidentsconsumptionpropensity)henough(20%-25%inmostcases),whenthereisasuddendrop,theirnetsavingsrate(savingsrateaftercapitaldepreciationisdeducted)willprobablybecomenegative,,theeconomywillbeverylikelytofallintothe"middle-incometrap"-upcountrieswillgothroughacourseofchangessimilartoan"invertedUcurve"andwillbefacedwiththeriskof"middle-incometrap",yetfromtheglobalperspective,differen,intheeconomictake-offstage,theeconomyshouldriseasfastaspossiblewithinashortestpossibletimespan;intheeconomiclandingstage,theeconomyshoulddeclineasslowlyaspossiblewithinalongestpossibletimespansoastoavoidthe"middle-incometrap".Withoutconsideringthelaborfactorsinceitismuchlessinfluential,thethreemainindicatorsdeterminingacountrysPEGRarephysicalcapital,ndofchangeofsavingsrate,butalsobythechangeintheproportionofphysicalcapitalinvestment,humancapitalinvestment,"invertedUcurve"ofeconomicgrowthasclosetotheidealstateaspossible,thegovernmentcanandisabletoexertaninfluenceonthepa,thegovernmentmaypushupdomesticsavingsrate,investmentgrowthrateandeconomicgrowthratebyexpandingpublicinvestmentandreducingpublicconsumpt,thegovernmentmayretardthedeclineinsavingsratea,thegovernmentmaymaximizePEGRatanytimethroughpolicyguidanceordirectinvolvementbyadjustingandoptimizingtheallocationofsavingsresourcesamongtheaforesaid4investmentareas(typically,thepolicyistoinjectmoresavingsresourcesintotheareasofhumancapitalinvestment,technologycapitalinvestmentandinstitutionalcapitalinvestment)."Abnormal"DeclineinChinassavingsrateandphysica,thoughChinassavingsratehasbeenonthedeclinesince2010,,%,%by2012,,,wehaveseennoobviousdeclineinChina,thecountry%%in2012,afallofmorethan45%,whichisevidently"abnormal".ByHanJunofDRCResearchReport,(Total4525)Thepromotionofagriculturalmodernizationalongwiththefurtherdevelopmentofindustrialization,ITapplicationandurbanizationisanunderlyingtaskrelatedwiththeestablishmentofamoderatelyprosperiththerequirementsofourtimes,wemuststrivetobreaknewpathsleadingtoanew-typeagriculturalmodernizationwithChinesecharacteristics,includingadvancedproductiontechniques,moderatemanagementscales,siveplanforthecomprehensivedevelopmentofreforminruralareasandtheaccelerationofagriculturalmodernization,andexplicitlypointedoutthedirectionandprinciplesfortheprogressofnre,eImportofFoodandImprovingFoodSecuritySystemofChinaItisaneternalsocialrulethatonlywhenclothingandf,,acountrywithalargepopulation,itisama,thecomprehensiveproductivityoffoodinChilionpeoplewithnearly9%%ceUnitindicatesthatChinarankedspositionasthe52ndintheworldrankingsandintermsofpercapitaGDP,Chinaisoneofthefewcountrieswhichsu,,theconsump%in2012,andisexpectedtoreach70%by2030,whereastheexpectedpeakvalueofurbanizationinChinawouldrangebetween70%~75%.Inthe20yearsfrom2011to2030,,theaveragefooddem,,afterfollowingthefoodconsumptionpatterninthecity,willincreasehisdailyfoodconsumptionby20%.Thehundredsofmil,thetotalacreageofarablelandkeepsdecreasing,theshortageofwaterresourcegetsaggravated,influenceoftheclimatechangebecomesintensifiedandthesustainableincreaseoffoodproductioninChinawouldbecomeincreasinglydifficult,therefore,,asadevelopingcountrywithalargepopulationandinsufficientland,willfindithardtosatisfythefoodconsumptionoftheresidentsandtheincreasingfooddemandarisingfromtheeconomicandsocialdevelopmnofover800millionmu(15mumakeonehectare)ofsownarea,ap,itinternationalanddomesticresourcesandmarketsandgivefullplaytoitsadvantagesasamajoreconomy,andefficientlymakeuseoftheglobalresourcesandinternationalmarrategyonmajoragriculturalproducts,optimizethemixofthesourceofgrainimport,andestablishstableandreliabletraderelations;speeduptheimplementationofthe“goglobal”agriculturalstrategyandfosterlargeenterpriseengagedintheproductionofgrain,cottonandoilandwithinternationalcompetitiveedge;rendersupporttoqualifiedenterprisestoconductoverseasagriculturalproductionandcooperationonimportandexportwithmutualbenefitandespeciallywithneighboringcountriessoastopreventandmitigatethertions,supplyanddemandpatternoffoodandtheinternationaltradeenvironment,weshouldkeepafirmhandontheinitiativesoffoodsecurityandimplementanationalfoodsecuritystrategybasedondomesticsupplyandmoderateimportswhichwill,,Chinasfo,therewillbeconsiderablerisksandpotentialdangerswhichwillnotonlybeunbearabletotheinternationalmarket,,itisdeterminedbythedemandofthedevelopmentofChina,riceandcornofChinaisaround60%,71%and67%,respectively,,thenumberofagriculturall,domesticfoodproductionisboundtobeaffected,,theinfluenceofChinaonglobalfoodmarketkeepsincreasingandtherequirementfromseffortinsecuringself-sufcompliancewiththesituationofChina,wemustensurethattheredlineforprotectingfarmland(arableland)isnotcrossed,delimitthescopeofpermanentbasicfarmlandandimplementthepracticeofholdingprovincialgovernorsresponsibleforthe“ricebag”(grainsupply).Weshouldfurtherclarifytheresponsibilityanddivisionofworkinfoodsecuritybetweenthecentralandlocalgovernments,keepimprovingthecomprehensiveproductivityofagriculture,enhanceChinasabilityincoordinatingandutilizingtheinternationalagriculturalresourcesandmarketandensuregeneralself-sufficiencyofgrainandsecurityoffoodtoprovideastrongsupportfortheeshold-basedManagementandDiversifiedManagementModesandFacilitatingtheEstablishmentofaNew-typeAgriculturalManagementSystemHouseholdmanagementisthemostcommonforminagriculturalmanagementacctanditrequirestimelyresponsetotheminorchangesinnaturalenvironment,whichhnformablew,householdmanagementisthemostadoptiveinagriculture,whichcannotonlybeadoptedbytraditionalagriculturewhichisbasedonmanuallabor,butalsobymodernagricult,householneseagriculture.ByFengFei,ShiYaodong,DengYusong,WangXiaoming,WangJinzhaoSongZifeng,ResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyInstituteofMarketEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo122,2013(Total4371)Thedeep-seatedproblemsconfrontingChinaspricereformhaveremainedformanyyears,andthedistortedfactorpriceshaveledtoirrationalresourceallocation,,distortedpricerelations,andincompletepricestructureandpricesupervisionmechanism,theState,inaperiodtocome,shouldclarifythereformmasterplanof"upholdingonedirectionandimprovingtwomechanisms",whichmeanstomaintainthedirectionofreformformarketeconomyandletthesupply-demandrelationshipplayabasicandleadingroleindecidingthemarketprice;andimprovethepricingmechanismsothatthepricesignalscantrulyreflecttheresourcescarcity,supply-demandrelationshipandcostofenvironmentdamageandimprovethepricesupervisionmechanismtoputthegovernment-pricedmonopolylinksundereffectivesupervision,strengthentheindependenceandcapacityofthesupervisioninssPriceReformThenumberofproductsandserviceswhosepricesareunderthedirectinterventionofthegovernmenthassignificantlydropped,instead,thecontroloverthep,themarket-basedpricingmechanismsforproductsandfactorsvitaltothenationaleconomyandpeople,butingeneral,icesleadtoirrationalresourceallocation,enceofthepricereformistoreformtheirrationalpricingmechanismandenablethesupply-demandrelationshiptodeterminethemarketprice,therareas(thepriceadjustment,tobemorespecific)shouldbeessentiallyattributedtoimproperguidelinestoreplacereformwithadjustment,namely,toeaselong-standingcontradictionbetweensupplyanddemandandbetweentheupstreamandthedownstreamenterprisesthroughshort-termregulatedpriceandadjustedprice;forexample,thereformofpricesofcoalforpowergeneration,processedoil,on,intensifythefundcircul,thegovernmentisconfrontedwithproblemswhichshouldhavebeensolvedbythemarket,andisforcedtodrivetherigidpriceincrease;andapriceadjustmentmechanismisformed,underwhichthegovernmenthastopromotetherigidpriceincrease,ratherthananinnovativemechanismuetothelong-standingpricerelationsdistortionBlockedpriceconductionbetweenupstreamanddownstreamenterprisesandirrationalpricerelationshipofmajorenergyproducts,especiallythepricebetweenthecoalandelectricity,crudeandprocessedoil,electricityforindustrialandcommercialuseandforresidentialuse,andnaturalgasandoil,havecausedreverseadjustmentofthepriceleverage,whichimpedestheimprovementofenergyangsectorandattractingitsoverseasinvestmentbackbytakingadvantageofthelow-costenergy,highattentionshouldbegiventotheinfluenceofenergypriceonChinaicdevelopmentDamagetotheecologicalenvironmentcausedintheprocessofenergyresourcesdevelopmentandproductionhasnotbeenfullycalculatedintocost,andthemineandwaterpricehasnotful,thecurrentcoalpricedoesnotreflectthetruevalueofcoal,feesforexercisingtherightforprospectingandminingaretoolowtofullyreflectthecoalscarcityandsufficientlymirrorindustrialsafetyandotherinternalcostandsuchexternalcostasinfluenceontheeco-environment;besides,itcannottellthecoalminewithdrawcostandexpenditureandpaysnoattentiontointergenerationalequality,,thegovernmentsdepenoregulationandadjustment,andtheirpricesupervisionfunctionisusuallysubjecttothemacro-regulationandadjustmentfunction;therefore,,amechanismisabsenttocollectrealcostinformationofthemonopolylinksandgiverelevantfeedback;andthepricessupervisiondepartmentsarebotheredbyinsufficienthuman,,spricehearingsystemshouldbefurtherimproved,andithasachesandmechanismsareamustformakingnewbreakperiodtocomecanbesummarizedas"upholdingonedirectionandimprovingtwomechanisms".Upholdingonedirection:weshouldupholdthedirectiontowardsamechanismofformingthepriceleverageviathemarket,andenablethesupply-demandrelationshiptoplayabasicandleadingroleindecidingtheprice,andreduceasmuchaspossiblethescopeanddegreeofgovernment,ratherthanpriceadjustment,andtheultimategoalistomakethemarketmaximallyplayitsrole,sothatthepri:first,weshouldimprovethepricingmechanismandparticularlyaddressproblemslikedistortedenergyprices,irrationalpricerelationandincompletecompositiononthebasisoffullandprecisereflectionoftheresourcescarcity,supply-demandrelationshipandexternalcostofenvironmentdamage;second,weshouldimprovethepricesupervisionmechanismtoeffectivelysupervisethegovernment-setpriceinmonopolylinks(suchasthepowergridandnaturalgaspipelinenetwork),intensifytheindependenceandcapabilityofsupervisiondepartmentsandcombatpricemanipspricereformisembracingtwo"windowperiods".First,someenergyresourcesaremoreexpensivethanthoseintheUnitedStatesandsomeothercountries,butarecheaperthanthoseinmostEuropeancountriesandJapan;andsecond,ingmechanism;otherwise,itwillfacemoredifficultiesandhighercost.EnergyissueisofstrategicimportanceaffectingChinasoveralleconomicandsociald,DRChasundertakenamajorresearchprojectonthestrategiesforChinasmid-andlong-termenergydevelopmentwiththeinvolvementofover70expertsfromrelevantChfanddemandforenergy;objectives,principles,androadmapofChinasfutureenergydevelopment;thecontroversialenergytechnologiessuchascoalchemical,nuclearpower,andelectricvehicles;keyenergyconsumingareassuchasurbanizationandtransport;,utionandSignificantChangesAreTakingPlaceinEnergyTechnology,,riodfeaturedbymulti-pointbreakthroughs,,renewableenergy,,electriccarsanndstorage(CCS)esbasedontheirresourceendowment,andwillproduceaprofoundimpactonstructureofenergysupply,modeofproductionandutilization,industrialorganizationandregionalstructure,,sign"peakoiltheory",thenewlyincreasedoildemandofChinaanityinvolvingthetraditionaloilproducingareas,,icaenergyindependent,,theUnitedStatesismoretoughandradicalinpushingthedemocratizationprocessintheMiddleEastdisregardingtheconstraintofoilissue,ngestoChinathatisthumbingaliftofinternationalenergytransitsecurity,makingitexposedtothegeo-politicalrisksinitssurroundingareas,,withthedecliningshareofitsnaturalgasinEurope,RussiahastoexportitsnaturalgastoEastAsia,cau,theglobalenergydemandisboundtogrowcontinuouslyand,eventhoughtheworldhasmadetremendouseffortstopushforwardgreentransformation,,%%,theenergydemandincrementsofChinaandIndiawouldtakeup33%and29%respectivelyoftheworld,althoughthedevelopmentofunconventionaloilandgasinNorthAmericahasimprovedtheregionalenergysupplytosomeextent,withcountriesinSouthAsia,ASEANandMiddleEaststeppinguptheirindustrializationprocess,,the,astheChineseeconomyisshiftingfromitshighgrowthtothemid-high,,ifcorrectenergystrategiesandpolicieswereadopted,economicrestructuringandindustrialupgradingwereacceleratedwhilelowcarbontransportationandgreenbuildingsweredeveloped,theenergydemandwouldbecontrolledataround5billiontonsa,China%annually,%intheperiodof2020-2030,%,Chinasenergyself-sufficiencyhasgenerallymaintainedatafairlyhighlevel,butthedependenceonoilandnaturalgasimporthaskeptclimbingwhiletheenvironmentalpressuresste,Chinasoilco,thedependenceonoilimportwouldreacharound75%by2030andthatofnaturalgaswouldalsorisespeedily,leadingtoseverechallengestoChinaalpressures,,itwouldposemajorchallengestoChinassocioeconomicdevelopment,,,NOX,,theemissionintensitywerenotcutandthecurrenttrendwerenotcontained,,GreenandHighlyEfficiaseffortstoacceleratethetransformationofitseconomicdevelopmentmode,Chinasenergystrategyshouldfocusonpromotingthetransformationofthemodeofenergydevelopmentinordertoestablishasafe,greenandhighlyefficientenergysysteminitiallyby2020,thefollowingsixareas:ensuringenergysecurity,prioritizingenergyconservation,optimizingenergystructure,targetinglowemissions,,whilestressingtherelianceondomesticresources,thedevelopmentofnewenergyandnaturalgaizethedomesticproduction,andc,ucetherelianceonoilimportfromtheMideastandthatonoilshippingthroughMalaccaStrait,iesshouldbeencouragedtoinvestinChinafocusingonthemid-and-downstreambusinesses,whileChineseenterprisesshouldbeencouragedtoinvestov,thecapabilitiminvolvingnationalbusinesse,perationsofpowersystemanditsshippingroutesensured.20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以Source:(MSEs)facedamoresternexportsituationthanlargeandsmall-sizedenterprises(LSEsandSSEs).Accordingtothepresentsurveyresults,betweenJanuaryandMaythisyear,%ofMSEssawanexportincrease,;%ofMSEssufferedanexportdecline,ssituation,thenumberofvarioustypesofenterprisesthatsufferedanexportdeclinehadincreased,andMSEsevensufferedasharperdecline,,,,%,lowerthanthatofotherindustriessurveyed;%,,rtwassignificantlyhigherthanlastyearssurveyresults,insuchindustriesasfood,textilesgarments,materialsandmachinerythe,wherethenumberofenterprisesreportinganexportincreasewas,,,thenumberofenterpriseswithanincreasedexporttoEuropeandrelevantregionswasabove50%,higherthantheexporttoothermajormarkets;thenumberofenterprises%%,ssurveyresults,thenumberofenterpriseswithadecreasedexporttovariousregionshadincreasedsignificantly,butthenumberofenterpriseswithanincreasedexporttoEurope,theUS,HongKong,Macau,,thenumberofenterpriseswitha,thos,thenumberofenterprisesreportinganexportgrowthwasabove50%inShanxi,HunanandSichuan,higherthanthatinBeijing,Guangdong,Fujianintheeasternregion;thenumberofenterpriseswithadecreasedexportinShanxi,Chongqing,HunanandSichussurveyresults,thepresentsurveyrevealsthatthenumberofenterpriseswithadecreasedexporthadrisenconsiderablyinBeijingandGuangdong,,thenumberofenterprisesrecordinganincreasedexportwasslightlyhigherinGuangdong,,materialsandmachineryindustrieswe%oftherespondentsreportedanupwardtrendofexportcostbetweenJanuaryandMaythisyear,ssurveyresults;theproportionofrespondentswithbasicallyunchangedordecreased(slightlydecreasedandsignificantlydecreased),thepressureofrisingcostsustainedbyexportenterpriseshadbeeneasedtosomeextent.、long8龙8注册开户用户至上优发app客户端下载ByLiZhijun,Techno-EconomicResearchDept,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo42,2013(Total4291)ChemicalpharmaceuticalindustryisanimportantintegralpartofChinasmedicalindustryanditaccountsforabouthalfofthetotaloutputvalueofChina,structuralreadjustmentandthetransformationandupgradingofChinaschemicalpharmaceuticalindustryisofvitalimportancetofacilitatingtheever-increasinggrowthofthemedicalindustry,protectingandimprovingpeopleshealth,addressingnaturaldiscalrawmedicine,Chinacanproducemorethan1,500kindsofchemicalrawpharmaceuticals,withthecountryscapacityrangingfrom2millionto3milliontons,accountingforabout20%straditionallysuperiorproducts,suchasantibiotics,vitaminsandantipyreticandanalgesicdrugs,enjoyabigmarketshare,bulkpharmaceuticalchemicalswithdistinguishingfeatures,suchasstatins,perindoprilsandlosartans,havebecomenewsuperiorexportproductsand,thenumberofva,suchasfloxacins,statins,vitaminB2,rifampicinsandantibiotics,arenowallbeingexported,,chemicalagentproductionisjustinafledgingperiod,withnewdrugresearchanddevelopmentbein,000kindsofchemicalagents,andartemisinin,aChina-origindrug,iswidelyusedacrosstheglobe,makingimp,Chinainvestednearly20billionyuaninanarrayofspecificprojects,suchas"NewMedicineDevelopmentProject",bringingalongtheinputofapproximately60billionyuanofsocialfundsinpharmaceuticalinnovationsphere,andsetupover50corporatenationaltechnologycentersthroughcollaborationofmanufacturers,schoolsandresearchinstitutions,,,HISUN,,CHIATAITIANQING,,,KangHongPharmaceuticalGroup,LUYEPHARMA,,,,TransformationandUpgradingofChinasPharmaceuticalIndustryandtheCausesThepharma,theindustrycangeneratehigherreturns,,themainproblemsfacingChinaschemicalpharmaceuticalindustrymainlyinclude:enterprisesbeingsmalleratlargethantransnationalpharmaceuticalgiants,themammothnumbersofpharmaceuticalenterprises,lowerindustrialconcentration,low-levelduplicateconstruction,serioushomogenizationandlow-levelcompetitions,poort,thechemicalpharmaceuticalindustryhasbeenhardhitbypricereductionfor30straighttimesin14years,irregulartender-basedpurchases,andtheformulationofdrugmanagementpoliciesinsuccession,narrowingtheprofitmarginsofenterprisesandseverelyimpedingthepharmaceuticalresearchanddevelopment,GMPimprovement,comprehensiveenvironmentalprotectionmanagement,,whichmainlyinclude:oodandDrugAdministration,theimperfectionoftheexaminingsystemandtheunevennessoflevelsofenterprisesresearchanddevelopmentpapersallincuraviciouscircleofexaminingefficiencybeinglow,examiningqualitybeingpoor,exa"double-envelope"systemisadoptedbyvariouslocalitiesinpurchaseofessentialdrugsbyinvitationtobid,,thewarofpricereductionforworkperformancegoingonamongvariousprovincesandmunicipalitiesintender-basedpurchasingofessentialdrugshasmadesomedrugpriceslowerandlower,,thepracticeofseekingafterlowpricescouldneitherreflectthefluctuatingtrendsofproductioncost,norleavesanyreasonableprofitmarginsforenterprises,whichisadeviationfromthemarketlawandthreatenstheexistenceanddevelopmentofsomeChineseto,winningthebiddingatbelow-costpricesissuspectedtogoagainstsomeestablishedlaws,leavingtender-basedpurchasingofessentialdrugsinfaceoflegalrisks,encumberingtheenterprisetransformationandcripplingthecorecompetitivenessofChinamaceuticalenterprisesusuallyaccountfor10%~15%oftheirsalesrevenues,withsomeevenreaching45%,whilefundsusedbyChineseenterprisesinpharmaceuticalresearchanddevelopmentmakeuplessthan1%oftheirsalesrevenues,withasmallnumberreaching6%~8%.TheRDfundscostannuallybyallpharmaceuticalenterprisesinChinaadduptoatotalof10billionyuanorso,fallingfarbehindwhatisspentbyAmericanPfizeraloneinayearforpharmaceuticalresearchanddevelopment().TheaveragerateofprofitforChinesepharmaceuticalenterprisescomesgenerallyto9%orso,whereasthatofworldtop50pharmaceuticalfirmsamountsto18%,andthatoftop10evenreaches21%.levelredundantconstructionandovercapacityareindisputablefactsinChinasproductionofbulkpharmaceuticalchemicals(BPC),andanarrayofproducts,suchasvitaminCandpenicillin,havebeenclassifiedasrestrictive."Threekindsofwastes"generatedinBPCproductionturnouttobetheworst,,BPCiscategorizedbytheMinistryofEnvironmentalProtect,somelocalitiesarestillexpandingproductionblindlyandareengagedinredundantconstruction,thuscausingseverewaste.ByFengFei,ShiYaodong,DengYusong,WangXiaoming,WangJinzhaoSongZifeng,ResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyInstituteofMarketEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo122,2013(Total4371)Thedeep-seatedproblemsconfrontingChinaspricereformhaveremainedformanyyears,andthedistortedfactorpriceshaveledtoirrationalresourceallocation,,distortedpricerelations,andincompletepricestructureandpricesupervisionmechanism,theState,inaperiodtocome,shouldclarifythereformmasterplanof"upholdingonedirectionandimprovingtwomechanisms",whichmeanstomaintainthedirectionofreformformarketeconomyandletthesupply-demandrelationshipplayabasicandleadingroleindecidingthemarketprice;andimprovethepricingmechanismsothatthepricesignalscantrulyreflecttheresourcescarcity,supply-demandrelationshipandcostofenvironmentdamageandimprovethepricesupervisionmechanismtoputthegovernment-pricedmonopolylinksundereffectivesupervision,strengthentheindependenceandcapacityofthesupervisioninssPriceReformThenumberofproductsandserviceswhosepricesareunderthedirectinterventionofthegovernmenthassignificantlydropped,instead,thecontroloverthep,themarket-basedpricingmechanismsforproductsandfactorsvitaltothenationaleconomyandpeople,butingeneral,icesleadtoirrationalresourceallocation,enceofthepricereformistoreformtheirrationalpricingmechanismandenablethesupply-demandrelationshiptodeterminethemarketprice,therareas(thepriceadjustment,tobemorespecific)shouldbeessentiallyattributedtoimproperguidelinestoreplacereformwithadjustment,namely,toeaselong-standingcontradictionbetweensupplyanddemandandbetweentheupstreamandthedownstreamenterprisesthroughshort-termregulatedpriceandadjustedprice;forexample,thereformofpricesofcoalforpowergeneration,processedoil,on,intensifythefundcircul,thegovernmentisconfrontedwithproblemswhichshouldhavebeensolvedbythemarket,andisforcedtodrivetherigidpriceincrease;andapriceadjustmentmechanismisformed,underwhichthegovernmenthastopromotetherigidpriceincrease,ratherthananinnovativemechanismuetothelong-standingpricerelationsdistortionBlockedpriceconductionbetweenupstreamanddownstreamenterprisesandirrationalpricerelationshipofmajorenergyproducts,especiallythepricebetweenthecoalandelectricity,crudeandprocessedoil,electricityforindustrialandcommercialuseandforresidentialuse,andnaturalgasandoil,havecausedreverseadjustmentofthepriceleverage,whichimpedestheimprovementofenergyangsectorandattractingitsoverseasinvestmentbackbytakingadvantageofthelow-costenergy,highattentionshouldbegiventotheinfluenceofenergypriceonChinaicdevelopmentDamagetotheecologicalenvironmentcausedintheprocessofenergyresourcesdevelopmentandproductionhasnotbeenfullycalculatedintocost,andthemineandwaterpricehasnotful,thecurrentcoalpricedoesnotreflectthetruevalueofcoal,feesforexercisingtherightforprospectingandminingaretoolowtofullyreflectthecoalscarcityandsufficientlymirrorindustrialsafetyandotherinternalcostandsuchexternalcostasinfluenceontheeco-environment;besides,itcannottellthecoalminewithdrawcostandexpenditureandpaysnoattentiontointergenerationalequality,,thegovernmentsdepenoregulationandadjustment,andtheirpricesupervisionfunctionisusuallysubjecttothemacro-regulationandadjustmentfunction;therefore,,amechanismisabsenttocollectrealcostinformationofthemonopolylinksandgiverelevantfeedback;andthepricessupervisiondepartmentsarebotheredbyinsufficienthuman,,spricehearingsystemshouldbefurtherimproved,andithasachesandmechanismsareamustformakingnewbreakperiodtocomecanbesummarizedas"upholdingonedirectionandimprovingtwomechanisms".Upholdingonedirection:weshouldupholdthedirectiontowardsamechanismofformingthepriceleverageviathemarket,andenablethesupply-demandrelationshiptoplayabasicandleadingroleindecidingtheprice,andreduceasmuchaspossiblethescopeanddegreeofgovernment,ratherthanpriceadjustment,andtheultimategoalistomakethemarketmaximallyplayitsrole,sothatthepri:first,weshouldimprovethepricingmechanismandparticularlyaddressproblemslikedistortedenergyprices,irrationalpricerelationandincompletecompositiononthebasisoffullandprecisereflectionoftheresourcescarcity,supply-demandrelationshipandexternalcostofenvironmentdamage;second,weshouldimprovethepricesupervisionmechanismtoeffectivelysupervisethegovernment-setpriceinmonopolylinks(suchasthepowergridandnaturalgaspipelinenetwork),intensifytheindependenceandcapabilityofsupervisiondepartmentsandcombatpricemanipspricereformisembracingtwo"windowperiods".First,someenergyresourcesaremoreexpensivethanthoseintheUnitedStatesandsomeothercountries,butarecheaperthanthoseinmostEuropeancountriesandJapan;andsecond,ingmechanism;otherwise,itwillfacemoredifficultiesandhighercost.ByLiuShouying,,2016AgriculturalmodernizationinChinahasalwaysbeenimpededbytheproblemofsmall-scaleandscatteredoperationofruralfarmland,whichismainlycaus,thecentralgovernmenthaspoliciesofencouragingvoluntary,law-based,,ruralfarmlandtransfertakesthetrendofacceleratedgrowthandpresentssomenewfeaturesdearly1990s,,from1984to1992,%offarmersnevertransferredfarmland,%,,842householdsintheeastern,centralandwesternareas,conductedbyruralsurveysitessetbyMinistryofAgriculture,%ofthetotalfarmland,with9%,%%fortheeastern,centralandwesternregionsrespectively[].Forthepastfewyears,anincreasingamountoffarmlandhasbeentransferred,withatotalareaof403millionmu()bytheendof2014,,%offarmlandcontractedandoperatedbyhouseholds,,theproportionoftransferredfarmlandisindescendingorderfromthecentraltoeastern,andtowesternregions,,%intheeasternregion,%inthecentralregion,%inthewesternregion,,,ties,likeShanghai(%),Jiangsu(%),Beijing(%),andZhejiang(%),sofMinistryofAgriculture,farmlandcanbetransferredinfivewaysincludessubcontracting,leasing,jointstockpartnership,exchanging,andtransferring,%,%,%,%%respectivelyin2014,%,w,however,,,farmlandismainlytransferredthroughsubcontractingandleasinginallregions,%,%%ofthetotaltransferredfarmlandrespectivelyintheeastern,,morethan60%,lessthan40%hatintheeasternandwesternregions,butrosefrom2011to2013,shipwashigh,over10%%in2013intheeasternregions,%%ithwideregionaldifferencesFrom2010to2014,theareaofsubcontractedfarmlandgrowinggraincropsincreasedfrom103millionto229millionmu,%%ofthetotaltransferredfarmland,,%%oftransferredfarmlandinJilinProvinceandHeilongjiangProvincerespectivelywasusedforgrainproduction,withtheareaoftransferredfarmlandforgrainproductioninmajorgrain-producingareashigherthanthenationalaverage,likeInnerMongolia(%),Jiangxi(%),Anhui(%),Henan(%).However,%inBeijing,%inGuizhou,%inHainan,%inGuangdong,%distransferredtomultiplepartieslikenon-farmers,,,%ofthetotalhouseholdscontractingandmanagingfarmland,,42millionfarmlandtransfercontractshavebeensigned,involvinganareaof269millionmu,,%ofthetotalareaoftransferredfarmland,owthoffarmlandtransfer,,thenumberoffarminghouseholdswithfarmlandlessthan10muwas226million,%ofthetotalhouseholdscontractingandoperatingfarmland,%.Specificallyspeaking,thenumbersoffarminghouseholdswithfarmlandbetween10and30muandbetween30―%%,thenumberoffarminghouseholdswithlessthan50muoffarmlandwasthelion’sshare(%),whichcorrespondstotheratiobetweenfamilysizetolandarea,technicalconditionsandfarmers’operationskills(seeTable7).Inaddition,,―100muoffarmland;750,000farminghouseholdshad100―200mu;and310,,itisofnecessitytofocusontheeffectsofalargenumberofhouseholdswithmoderatescaleoffarmi,farmlandisoper,,%oftransferredfarmlandisoperatedbyfarmers,whoarestillthemajorplayer,,farmlandisalsotransferredamongplentyofparties,likefarmingspecializedcooperatives(%),enterprises(%),andothers(%).Itisworthnotingthat,comparedwith2010,;;;...Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.、DVORByMaJunXiangAnbo,ResearchTeamon"theReformoftheManagementSystemofState-ownedAssets"ofEnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCResearchReportNo160,2014(Total4659)Improvingthemanagementsystemofstate-owne,implementation,andsupervisioninthehopeofimprovinggovernmentalmanagementsystemoverstate-ownedassets,regulatinggovernmental,wesuggesttoimprovecorporategovernance,maintainenterprisesstat,amanagementsystemofstate-ownedassetsshouldbeestablishedinwhichgovernmentaladministrationisseparatedfromenterprisesmanagement,authoritiesmatchresponsibilities,effecti,wecan,ontheonehand,strengthensupervisionandadministrationofstate-ownedassets,withmanagingthecapitalasthemajortask,andhelpstateeconomytogainmorevitality;ontheotherhand,wecansetupadynamicadjustmentmechanismforstate-ownedassets,n,bottom-linethinkingandgradualadvancement,m,letalonefallingintoformalism,,theprimaryproblemofstateassetsmanagementsystemist,thegoalofthisreformshouldbefocusedonrejuvenatingstate-ownedenterprises,especiallythoseinthecompetitivedomains,andestablishingareasonablemechanismforadjusti,developmentmodesaswellassystemsandinstitutions,,disharmonyandunsustainabilityinthecountry,,thereformschemeforstate-ownedassetsmanagementsystemshallbeembeddedintotheoverallconsiderationofthecountryover150thousandenterprises,,short-termmeasuresshouldbeconsistentwiththelong-termgoals;top-leveldesignwithanoverallconsiderationshouldbeintegratedwithexplorationandpilotprojectsinsomedomains;comprehensi(SOEs)reformandthescientificassessmentofpresentmanagementsystem,weshallidentifythemainproblems,advancethereforminawell-mesticandforeignexperience,aneffectivestateassetsmanagementsystemshouldbecomposedofthreeparts:governmentaldepartments,investme,shoulderingtheircorrespondingrespo,onbehalfofallthepeople,,thegovernmentisinchargeofformulatingpublicpoliciesconcerningtheadjuetwoproblems—lackofduefunctionsandunnecessaryintervention."Lackofduefunctions"indicatesthatstateassetsarenotgivenafullplayinthesocietyandeconomyastheirfunctionsanddistributionarenotadjustedintimeaccordingtothecountrysdifferentdevelopmentstagesandmarketchanges."Unnecessaryintervention"meansthatnominallytheState-ownedAssetsSupervisionandAdministrationCommissionoftheStateCouncilisaninstitutionspeciallydesignedformanagingstateassets,whilesubstantiallyitisagovernmentaldepartment,whichnotonlyintervenestoomuchintheenterprisesmanagement,,sincetheState-ownedAssetsSupervisionandAdministrationCommissionwassetup,theresponsibilitiesoftheinvestorhavebeendetermined,solvingtheproblemof"manydepartmentscontrol,butnonetakesresponsibility".Thishas,onaccountofsomeinternalandexternalfactors,theState-ownedAssetsSupervisionandAdministrationCommissionhasincreasinglyexpandeditsduedutiesinadministrating"personnel,affairsandassets",leadingtoamoreseriousmixingofgovernmentaladministrationandenterprises,whileservesasanadministrativedepartmentw,tntationfromsupervisiontoimprovethegovernmentalmanagementsystemofstateassets,regulategovernmentalmprovecorporategovernance,eliminateimproperadministrativeinterventionandensureenterprisesindependentmanagementinthemarket.Asanintegralpartofthemodernstategovernancesystem,aracteristicsundernewcircumstances,effortsneedtobemadetohaveacomprehensiveandaccurateunderstandingofthemeaningintheanceModernizationinChinaItisclarifiedintheDecisionoftheCPCCentralCommitteeonMajorIssuesConcerningComprehensivelyDeepeningtheReform(hereinafterreferredtoastheDecision)thattheultimateobjectiveofcomprehensivelydeepeningthereformistoperfectanddevelopthesocialistsystemwithChinesecharacteristicsandpromhelatterissue,clarifyingthescientificconnotationof"stategovernancesystemandgovernancecapability"andinstructingthedirectionof"stategovernancemodernization"ntegrnancecapabilityaretheconcentratedexpresrtheleadershipofthePartyandincludessystems,mechanismsandlegalarrangementsineconomy,politics,culture,society,,itisacomgesocialaffairs,coveringvariousfieldssuchasreform,development,stability,domesticaffairs,rvinglypursuethesocialistpathandperfectanddevelopthesocialistsystemwithChinesecharactsecharacteristicsistopushforwalistpathwithChinesecharacteristicsispursued;thesocialistsystemwithChinesecharacteristicscanonlybeperfectcteristicscanwerealizestatejorshina,hepointedoutthatitwouldtakeusanother30yearsbeforewecouldset,thePartyproposedpromotingthestategovernancesystemandgovernancecapabilitymoderniwithChinesecha"forgoverningacountry,systemsplayafundamental,overallandprofoundrole."AfteroversixtyyearsofpilotpracticeforexploringthewaysforbuildingsocialismwithChinesecharacteristics,,ourtophistorictaskistoperfectanddevelopthesocialistsystemwithChinesecharacteristicsandprovideasetofcomplete,stableandeffectivesystemsforPartybuildingandnationaldevelopment,thewellbeingofthepeople,,institutionalizationofstategovernancereferstotheregulationofbasicnationalpoliticalsystemsduringstategovernance,coveringpowerallocation,settingofinstitutionsforexercisingthepower,functionsoforgansofauthority,restrictionandsupervisionofpublicpowerandprotectionofcivilrights,sothatstateandsocialaffairscouldgobyrelevantlaws,berealizedinlightofChina,governanceisthesumofvariousmethodsusedbyindividualsandinstitutions,eitherprivateorpublic,,th"whatkindofgovernancesystemacountrychoosesisdecidedbyhistory,culturaltraditionandeconomicandsocialdevelopmentofthatcountryandbyitspeople.""ThestategovernancesysteminChinaisthenationalsystemforthePartytoleadthepeopletoeffectivelygovernthecountry,whilestategovernancecapabilityistheabilityofthePartyinleadingthepeopletousethenationalsystemtoeffectivelyimplementgovernance."Promotingthestategovernancesystemandgovernancecapabilitymodernizationistheprocessforthesystemandabiliwtostre,stategovernancemodernizationinChinacannotseveritstiesfromChinesehistoryorculture,thepresentstategovernancemodernizationshouldcontainpreviousreasonablefactorsinstategovernance,asforgovernance-relatedtheories,experienceandpracticeofothercountries,wecannotentirelycopyorrejectthembutshoulddrawonandmakeuseoftheirachievements.ByShiYaodong,ResearchTeamon"ChinasMediumandLongTermEnergyDevelopmentStrategy"ofDRCResearchReport,,2013(Total4439)Overthepast30years,Chinasenergysystemhaswitnessedamarkedprogressandisnowex,therapiddevelopmentofChinasenergysystemhasplayedavitalsupporti,ChinaspercapitaG,Chinasenergysystemisfacingthreechallenges,namely,supplysecurity,,,hecommoditymarket,policymakersneedtoestablishacomprehensiveenergypolicysystemframeworktargetingatfacilitatingChinasenergysystemdevelopmentandtransformationsoastoguideenergysystemtransformationinamoresecure,,Chinawillenterthelatestageofindustrializationasawholeandindustrialstructureadjustmentandupgradingandin-depthurbanization,greenandeconomicdevelopmentpatternwillconstitutebasicstartingpointsandmajorconstraintsonChinasmodernenergysystem,howtosupplystable,safe,cleanandefficientenergytosustainara,Chinasenergyindustrywillfacemanyn,thethirdindustrializationbasedondeepintegrationofrenewableenergyandintelligentcommunicationstechnologywillsignificantlychangethedrivingforcesforeconomicgrowthinChi,digitalmanufacturingandmanufacturingindustryinsourcingbasedonanewroundoftechnologicalrevolutionmightre-boostindustrialenergyconsumption;thelarge-scaledevelopmentandwidespreaduseofmassivebudgetnon-conventionalnaturalgasintheUnitedStatesandothercountrieswilltriggeroffamarkedchangeinglobalenergysupplyandconsumptltilateralcarbonreductionmechanism,Chinawillbeputundergreaterpressuretoreducecarbonemissionsastheworld,senergysystemisboundtomakeacomprehensiveandprofoundstrategictransformationinasecure,,.SinceReformandOpeningup,Chinasrapideconomicgrowth,furthermarket-orientedreformandchangesinenergysupplyanddemand,Chin,China,Chinasenergypoliciesfocusedonaddressin,issuesrelatedtomixedupfunctionsb,policiesinthefirsttenyearsaimedatgivingfullplaytopoliciesondemandsidemanagement,,theconstantadjustmentandimprovementofChinasenergypoliciesoverthepast30yearsplayedavi,China:From1978tothelate1980s(1)MacrobackgroundDuringthefirsttenyearsinthe1980s,Chinainitiateditseconomicsystemreform,inducingmarkedchangesineconomicmanagementsystemsandmarketoperationmechanisms,includingreformofinvestmentsystem,pilotpricerefor,therewasatende,localstate-ownedenterprisesandtownshipandvillageenterprisesemergedinmultitude,butontheotherhandsectoralcorporatiotablemacroeconomicoperation.(2)EnergypoliciesEnergypolicieswereaimedataddressin,theChinesegovernmentimplementedthedualcoalpricesystem,pushedthroughelectricitypricereform,encouragedlocalgovernmentstooperatesmallcoalmines,raisefundsforpowergenerationandattractforeigninve,,theMinistryofEnergywasfounded,theMinistryofCoalIndustry,theMinistryofPetroleumIndustryandtheMinistryofNuclearIndustrywerefirstdissolvedandthenrestoredandfollowedbytheestablishmentofChinaNationalCoalCorporation,ChinaNationalPetroleumCorporationandChinaNationalNuclearCorporation.(3)OverallevaluationTheeffortsmadebytheChinesegovernmentinrelaxingcontrolovermarketaccessinthefieldsofcoalandelectricityalleviatedtheshortageofenergysupplytoacertainextent;theadjustmenttoenergypoliciesmainlycenteredaroundpowercentralizationanddecentralizationbetweenlocalgovernmentsandcentra,reformofrigidenergypricingmechanismbroadenedexperiencefordeepeningreformofenergyprice,,therewerefundamentalcontradictionstoberesolved,includinginadequateenergypricereform,imperfectcriteriaformarketassess,absenceofpoliciesonenergyefficiency,imperfectpoliciesonenergyresources,fi:1990s(1)MacrobackgroundTheChinesegovernmentsetthetargetsofmarketeconomysystemandmarket-orientedreformenteredasubstantivestage;separationofgovernmentadministrationfromenterprisemanagementbecamethefocusofsystemreforminvariousfields,pricereformwasgraduallydeepenedandpricemechanismreinforceditsfundamentalroleinoptimizingresourceallocation;state-ownedenterprisescompletedstrategicregroupingandstate-ownedenterprisescoexistedwithforeign-fundedenterprisesandprivateenterprises;awaveofinternationalindustrialtransfersweptovertheeasterncoastalareasandconsequentlyitstimulatedandincreasedlocaldemandonenergyresources.(2)EnergypolicesEffortsfocusedontacklingissuesrelatedtomixedfunc,theChinesegovernmentpushedthroughreformofseparationofgovernmentadministrationfromenterprisemanagementintheindustriesofcoal,electricityandoilandenergyenterprisesnolongershoulderedthefunctionforadministrativemanagement;energymanagementsystemlaunchedinitialreformandtheoilindustrycompletedlarge-scalerestructuring;energymarketreformwasdeepenedandbothenergyresourceexploitationandenergyconservationwereemphasized;theChinesegovernmentacceleratedenergylegalstytemconstructionandenactedtheCoalIndustryLawofthePeoplesRepublicofChinaandtheElectricPowerLawofthePeoplesRepublicofChinain1996andtheEnergyConservationLawofthePeoplesRepublicofChinain1997;andnewenergydevelopmententeredaninitialstage.(3)OverallevaluationChinasenergypoliciesshiftedthefocusfromsingletargetoffocusingonincreasingenergysupplycapacitytodiversifiedtargetsofintroducingmarketcompetitionmechanism,optimizingehedevelopmentoftheenergyindustryandlegalandstandardized,Chinasenergypolicieswerestillinvolvedinadministrativeinterventioninenergyinvestmentandpricesetting;energydemandmanagementpolicies,incentivecompetitionpoliciesandenergytechnologypoliciesrequiredimprovementandtherewasalackofincentivepoliciesforpromotingrenewableenergydevelopment.。

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